Most of us have the ability to perceive a million different colors. This is due to the presence of three types of cones in our eyes that send color messages to our brain. But there are some people who have a faulty cone or just two cones, which can greatly decrease the perception of color. This condition is known as color blindness and is very common: about 8% of men worldwide and 0.5% of women. Many do not realize that there are different types of color blindness. Read on for the different variations:
Red-green color blindness
Normal color vision is known as trichromacia-tri because it uses all three types of cones correctly, allowing us to see so many bright colors. Remove a cone, go from being what scientists call a trichromatic to a dichromatic, and the number of possible combinations drops to 10,000. Most color blind people are male because the genes involved in color vision are on the X chromosome, of which males only have one. The most common form of color blindness is known as red-green color blindness and is actually a grouping of some disorders with similar effects on vision. A reduced sensitivity color blind glasses price philippines to red light due to missing or defective L-cones (or long-wave cones) is known as protanopia or protanomaly respectively and a reduced sensitivity to green light is known due to missing or defective M-waves (or wave cones). media) as deuteranopia or deuteranomaly respectively. These types cause difficulty distinguishing between reds, greens, and oranges and make blues and yellows stand out.
Blue-yellow color blindness
Absent or weakened S-cones (or shortwave cones) are a condition called Tritanopia or Tritanomaly, respectively. Both are extremely rare, affecting 1 in 30-50,000 and impair the ability to distinguish some blues from greens and some yellows from violet.
Total color blindness
There are those who cannot see any color, for them the world is a black and white film. This is known as monochromatopsia or achromatopsia and is due to non-functional or absent retinal cones. Achromatopsia is extremely rare, occurring in about 1 in 33,000 people.
Color blindness is primarily inherited, although acquired color vision defects can be caused by some chronic diseases, accidents, chemicals, or medications. There is currently no cure for color blindness, although there have been some advances with gene therapy in monkeys. If you think you may have a color vision deficiency, see your eye doctor. He or she can test you for the Ishihara plaque, the one with all the colored dots, or use more sophisticated tests if necessary to find out if you are color blind. If you are a woman and you think you see colors differently, you may be one of the rare cases of women with a fourth cone known as tetrachromacy. If this is the case, you can see 100 times more colors than the rest of us!